Duterte Stratagems

(The Philippines has never had a more cunning politician for president than Rodrigo Duterte. The former mayor of Davao has displayed and continues to display political wit I’ve never seen in National Politics before. Breaking them down in the tradition of the Classical Chinese war treaties, I present some of them here. I will continue to develop this post as I observe more tactical moves from Digong!)


  •  Play the game as transparently as you can, no matter how ruthless. It projects a realpolitik prudence, sending the message that you mean business. Pretending to be principled is overrated.


  • Do not come into a race as a main force. Let the main forces battle each other out first and destroy each other. When both sides are politically bruised, storm in suddenly like thunder as an outsider and offer a fresh, vigorous alternative.


  • Delay filing your candidacy, then use an obscure electoral rule to file it after the deadline. The mass media, brainlessly hungry for a sensational story, will lap up the novelty and give you free publicity.


  • Do not start a fight, most Filipino politicians have been stupid enough to mistake Western confrontational politics as a superior political tactic. Let your opponents commit this mistake, that way you can present yourself as the provoked peace lover. Remember how the Ming Emperor Yongle gained legitimacy to oust his nephew.


  • When fighting a presently powerful force beyond your own strength, boost your own standing by siding with its enemies, present and past. Unchain enthralled dragons if you think you can control them,  reopen old wounds and offer opportunities for vindication.


  • Side with politically wounded forces. They will lend all their remaining strength to you. If they turn against you, they won’t be difficult to destroy. Do not side with a force who can overpower you.


  • Steal your political opponents’ ideas. When playing the game in a disillusioned politics, capitalize on executive will rather than on grand visions and plans. Plus it will be hard for your opponents to contradict their own ideology.


  • Drop the moral ascendancy. It is more difficult to criticize someone who admits his own faults.


  • Nothing destroys a saint more than exposing a hidden sin: If an opponent’s credibility is founded on moral ascendancy, unravel it by releasing a sex scandal or anything that will reveal immorality.


  • Magnanimity is also an offensive tactic. When you know you have International backing in a dispute, don’t pick a fight with the other side. The International backing can serve as a trump card in case you need to go on diplomatic offensive.


  • Exploit the rivalry of two bullies for your own gain. Let them vie for your approval in spite of your weakness compared to them.


  • Let the pot leak to see the cracks: To establish a connection between an opponent and a suspected violator of the law, give confidential information to the said suspect. Wait for your opponent to reveal her links with him with a vanity press conference.


  • Use opportunity as a weapon: If you are in position to give a post to your opponent, give her something either incredibly demanding, or something beyond her field of expertise, preferably both. Put pressure on her by tying her success up with peoples’ hopes – if she fails she will be hated. Capitalize on her failure by replacing her with an ally who can handle the task.


  • To silence a consistently and vocally critical minority, offer them power for the first time. They will be staging rallies for you in gratitude. If they succeed you take the credit, if they fail you can blame them for it.


  • Belittle an opponent’s importance by only dealing with her in informal terms, such as text messaging. Make such informal dealings publicly visible for maximum humiliation on her part.


  • Discredit the media. They will not be reliable allies anyway, you might as well de-fang them. Exploit the growing irrelevance of mainstream media outlets to your benefit. Use informal spokespersons to let out information you cannot release officially.


  •  If you can’t unseat a position-holder, hold her agency in hostage by isolating her or dangling the sword of budgets cuts over her head. Fight with the purse. But be careful not to alienate the whole agency, make them blame her and not you.


  • Do something controversial. Let the populace stage protests against it. Manage these protests efficiently to demonstrate tolerance and good governance.

The Hanoi Experience

(I and fellow Cardoner Volunteers Abdula Uka and Darl Undag went to Hanoi for three days for our regular visa renewal.Here are some thoughts on the City of the Ascending Dragon)


  • Vietnam – which has been invaded by at least three different superpowers throughout its long history – shows what effect winning has on postcolonial culture. The country has lost almost all vestiges of its pre-Chinese identity, but what was imposed on it by the Chinese and the French it has owned with a vengeance.
  • Although using the Roman alphabet, written Vietnamese might as well be written in a different writing system. If you don’t know the constellation of diacritics you will have a hard time pronouncing what you read.

I don’t even want to try pronouncing ‘Ho Chi Minh’ correctly

  • English in Vietnam is difficult, but the locals will struggle to help you.
  • Hanoi is ridiculously cheap. Entrance fees to most tourist attractions are at  30,000 Vietnamese Dong (around 67 Philippine Pesos). The money is dizzyingly small, so I have a million or two in my wallet at all times.
  • It’s a headache to hold the bills though, as the 10,000s are confusing with the 1000’s and the 100,000s.

It doesn’t help that all of them have the same shades and all of them have Ho Chi Minh. Use your many great kings for a change.

  • The Somerset Grand Hanoi, located smack dab between the French Quarter and the Hoan Kiem environs, is a lovely hotel. The pick-up service from and to the airport has wifi, the hotel itself has a convenience store and several restaurants, the buffet is great for exploring Vietnamese food, and you even get to use the pool!

Not to mention a  spectacular view. Hello Hanoi!


The view at night. I guess because America couldn’t conquer the country all they could do is put this neon sign on its skyline


One of the rooms in our unit. Of course I got the bed near the window!


Our unit had  a kitchen with a washing machine


The hotel also had restaurants and a convenience store on the ground floor


The restaurant on the fourth floor had a great and cheap buffet


Also on the fourth floor was the pool


  • First thing I ever ate in Hanoi is Phở . On its own. this noodle soup is light and simple, but made beautifully complex by the wild combination of greens you put: two kinds of basil, coriander, peppermint, lettuce.


  • Second thing I had in Hanoi: Trà sen (Vietnamese lotus tea). It is an extraordinary tea, I’ve never had anything like it before. Undag describes it as ‘pretty smelling tea.’ I expected having a hard time looking for it, but I found it just a few hours after I arrived in the city, cheap and readily available in the convenience store.
  • The next day for breakfast I had t sen with some Bánh khảo, short cake made with glutinous rice flour. There seems to be many variations of bánh khảo, but the one I had was plain white, flavoured with grapefruit blossom juice, and was slightly chewy while being powdery. It had a distinct aroma, similar to a candy sold in my elementary days in Kidapawan’s NDKC. It was beautifully nostalgic, but with t sen that nostalgia played out as a sub-note to a distinct symphony of aroma I will forever associate with Hanoi.

of course it had to come with the view

  • It is a horrible thing to have achalasia. You’re right in the middle of enjoying something exotic, but then the food gets stuck in your food pipe. When you have no toilet available nearby you have to choose between drowning in your own spit or puking in public. I should write a book about this.

Oh great Conqueror of Aberrant Peristalses!

  • No achalasia can spoil Bún chả, though. This national favourite originated in Hanoi, and even Obama knew it was good. Vermicelli served with grilled pork in a soup of vinegar, sugar, and fish sauce and eaten with Vietnam’s glorious herbs, bún chả is the most delicious thing I ever ate in Hanoi.


  • Hanoi’s historical and cultural heart is the Hoan Kiem district, the area surrounding the Hoan Kiem lake. Just south of the lake is the French Quarter, where the French colonial government built many administrative buildings. The distinct European architecture extended to the lake’s West, where the Cathedral of St Joseph was.


  • The Church is a gorgeous Gothic monolith jutting out of old-world townhouses and greenery. The adjacent plaza and road intersection are amusingly reminiscent of Davao’s San Pedro area.

Interior is remarkably well maintained for its age


The surrounding has lovely cafes. Here are the Cardoner volunteers in KOMO The Church

  • Two little-known tourist spots in the French quarter: the former Vatican embassy hall (now an open garden), and the National Library.

The former Vatican embassy is now a library and public garden

  • The National Library of Vietnam has gorgeous neoclassical architecture. When we went there the books were scarce, perhaps due to ongoing renovations.

The National Library’s facade is glorious


The contents were pretty underwhelming for a National Library though. I suspect the bulk of the books are elsewhere, the place felt like it was under rennovation.


I wasn’t able to explore this though. I don’t know if it has Filipino stuff.

  • Egg coffee, as the descriptions suggest, is like liquid tiramisu. What online articles rarely mention is that it’s usually served with a portable blow torch, so the top can be caramelized ala creme brûlée.

And if you know where to have it, you can have it with a great view


  • The Vietnamese have a way of serving balut (here called hột vịt lộn) that Filipinos should copy: served in noodles with a tomato and fish-based broth.Balut Udong anyone?

That I’m eating it a stone’s throw away from St Joseph’s gives it the added spice of irony: I’m eating duck abortion near a Catholic church

  • I finally got to see Buddha’s Hand citruses in person.

They look more like lemons cosplaying as squids

  • The Vietnamese mastery of paper cutout pop-ups is amazing. This should be listed as a cultural heritage.

An unassuming card…


… has a tower made of paper inside oh my gosh


This shop, just west of St Joseph’s, has souvenirs you won’t find anywhere else in Hanoi and has a pretty owner

  • when in Vietnam you must try Bánh Đậu Xanh. Mung bean cakes often flavoured with lotus seed, this simple treat can be so classy, smooth and sweet in a way that is at once mellow and intense. I call it Vietnamese white chocolate.

They even come in bars!

  • In Vietnamese, bánh means cake. But everything is ‘cake’: On top of the obvious sweet cakes, rice cakes, and pancakes, the word is also used for bread (bánh mì), dumplings (bánh bá trạng), rice paper (bánh tráng), the spring rolls you make out of it (bánh cuốn), noodles (bánh canh) and crackers (bánh phồng tôm). Marie Antoinette would have made more sense in Vietnam.

‘Let them eat bánh’


  • The Lake of the Returned Sword is one of the most beautiful places in the world. The heart of the only country that had defeated America in war is surrounded by buildings of neoclassical European and Chinese architecture, with banks adorned with flowers and willows and rain trees, and with one island with a temple with a gorgeous vermilion wooden bridge, and in another one of the most iconic buildings in the world, a French-Chinese tower built in honour of a legendary reptile and a magical sword. There are few places in the world for which I can write a description like that.

The lake at night


The Turtle Tower, one of the most beautiful buildings in the world


I hope the tower redeems the ugliness


When we walked along the lake there was a free open-air exhibit of lovely photos. They just add to how picturesque the place was.


Along the lakeside was this temple, built to commemorate Lê Lợi, founder of Vietnam’s glorious Lê Dynasty and the human hero of the legend of the lake.



The temple also contained a replica of a stone slab, where a poem in Chinese by Lê Lợi was carved. The poem glorifies him, so it kinda feels vain, but he did defeated the Ming Dynasty, so he deserves to praise himself a bit.

  • I first read about of the Hoan Kiem turtle when I was in early college, and it never would have occurred to me that I’d ever find myself in in its picturesque lake. It feels like a personal tragedy that, on the very same year I finally do get to visit Hanoi, the turtle went extinct. Extinction feels like a dull heartbreak.

The legendary turtle receiving the sword, Heaven’s Will, depicted as a bas relief on the Temple of the Jade Mountain


The specimen at the Temple of the Jade Mountain is the closest I’ll ever get to the turtle

  • But I believe, oh I believe. And when one believes it is difficult to lose hope. While only one old turtle has been verified for the past few decades (the lone turtle that died this year), locals report seeing at least two more. In the Temple of the Jade Mountain I paid more attention to the island’s banks than to the temple itself, looking for a turtle.  I walked around Hoan Kiem lake three times, and on the second time I saw a mass of bubbles surfacing near the Turtle Tower. Oh I want to believe.

No turtle there. All the lake’s surrounding banks are cemented like this – how was the turtle supposed to lay eggs!


  • The Temple of the Jade Mountain (Đền Ngọc Sơn), positioned on an island, feels like a fabulous sacred retreat from the mundane world, reachable only by the Bridge of Welcoming Morning sunlight, with dozens of karikomied bonsai serving as clouds in this lake paradise. Though seeing the turtle taxidermied only makes the sense of species loss sadder. Et in Đền Ngọc Sơn, ego…

The Bridge of Welcoming Morning Sunlight


Entrance fee is ridiculously cheap


The Pavilion in front of the temple overlooking the lake


Photobomber kid


The view is gorgeous


Some lovely bonsai


The turtle motif is ubiquitous, as seen on the legs of this bonsai pot


And in the intricate carved wooden latticework of the temple’s interior


One of the temple’s many altars


The Pen Tower, which stands at the entrance of the Temple, overlooks the lake

  • A couple of local shoe repair boys abused our tourist generosity by grabbing our otherwise okay shoes, repairing it before us, and charging us 650,000 VND (1,400 pesos). I wanted to be some Lê Lợi returning these swindlers to the turtle god, but that would be pollution. I don’t want to feed garbage to the turtles hiding in the lake.


  • Vietnam has ingeniously marketed its communist propaganda materials – the famous propaganda that won them two wars against western superpowers – into tourist souvenirs.

If we sell Duterte paraphernalia like this, it would have a market across Southeast Asia. Imagine statement shirts with his most controversial quotes!

  • Why can’t Filipinos think of putting snails in their noodles?

Bún ốc is noodles with freshwater snails and clear tomato soup, served with the usual greens and quẩy (Chinese youtiao). 35,000 VND

  • North of the lake is the 35 famous streets (more really) of Hanoi’s Old Quarter. It is a wonderful maze of Phốs and Hàngs, each street full of shops that sell a particular product (usually after which the street is named). In between busy stores and restaurants is the occasional temple or the bird cage with a singing bird, and at some point you will reach the Dong Xuan Public market. At night a street, starting on the lake’s north fountain court and going on to have three different names as it reaches Dong Xuan, is a bustling night market closed to vehicles. Getting lost in the Old Quarter is a must for any tourist in the city.

The fountain court north of the lake, where the Old Quarter began


The start of the night market

  • I had such an adventure looking for Hanoi’s famous Bánh cốm. The rice cake, made with cốm (young green rice made into flakes flavoured with pandan) and stuffed with bean paste, is a Hanoi delicacy and is specially in season during Autumn. I had no idea where in the Old Quarter to find it. Equipped with nothing but a picture and its name in correct diacritics, I walked around showing it. The locals, with hardly any English pointed north. When I reached the lakeside edges of the Old Quarter, one local jotted down ‘Hàng Than’ and told me to go there. I enjoyed getting lost looking for this stret until I reached Phố Hàng Đường. When I showed a picture of bánh cốm they brought out a pile of little small boxes of it. I went back to the hotel grinning. Bánh cốm may just be like a cross between suman muron and pandan tikoy, but I owe to it my exploration of Hanoi’s cultural heart.

Of course I had to have it with some t sen and a view of the French Quarter

  • Not entirely for the bánh cốm of course, I had other priorities too: I needed to look for a wallet for my Ilongga, and I wanted to buy a notebook and some Vietnamese books. For the latter excursion I was able to stray far enough to see the Opera House, and it was the occasion to go to Hiệu Sách Thang Long, a decently sized book store in Tràng Tiền street. It’s no books Kinokuniya, but I found what I wanted.

The front of the book store along Trang Thien


I bought this small book on Vietnamese folk tales. I couldn’t find any contemporary fiction in English, but this was a fun read.

  • Hanoi is a dog capital. There are dogs all over the street!
  • Folk religion in Vietnam is thriving, the dominant religion in fact. Vietnam is one of the few countries in the world which predominantly follows an ethnic religion.

You can find little altars like this even in banks


  • Contrary to what its name suggests, there is little literary about the Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu). It is in fact a Confucian temple, and the name stems from Confucius’ emphasis on literacy and learning. This emphasis is evident in the fact that Hanoi’s Văn Miếu is also the site of Vietnam’s first university, the Imperial Academy.
  • Yup, schools should be as green and garden-filled as possible.
  • Vietnam is turtle country. Because the turtle is the only one among the four sacred beasts which is a real animal (the other three are the dragon, the phoenix, and the qilin), it holds a special place in Vietnamese symbolism.

Vietnam is also Lotus country – the flower as a motif is as ubiquitous as the turtles

  • I am confusing the Ly and the Le dynasties with each other. I am a failure as a history nerd.
  • I may be stating the obvious, but the Vietnamese were really huge fans of Chinese culture.
  • Which is not to say that’s all there was to Hanoi: the charm of this city is how these Chinese-style buildings are just side by side with the old European structures the French left behind.

One of the best photos I’d ever taken in Hanoi: a Chinese-style gate beside a French style building. Hybridity!

  • Thank goodness Uncle Ho was no madman like Mao, a China-style Cultural Revolution would have destroyed so much of Hanoi.


  • The Palace of the President is a gorgeous yellow mansion. It was a shame we weren’t able to enter and see it, or Ho Chi Minh’s house.
  • But his Mausoleum is displayed in all its solid granite glory, overlooking Ba Dinh Square. I could almost imagine Voldemort blasting it open to take the Elder Wand from Uncle Ho’s crossed hands.

Eat your (wax) heart out, Marcos!

  • There is little information online in English on the buildings surrounding Ba Dinh square, so just a run through, clockwise with the Mausoleum at 12 o’clock: The Mausoleum, the Presidential Palace (and a little beyond that to the right the Ho Chi Minh house), the headquarters of the Communist Part of Vietnam, the Ministry of Planning and Investment, the Vietnamese Assembly Hall, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Embassy of Poland, and some way behind the Ho Chi Minh Museum and the One Pillar Pagoda.

Because they were wearing straw hats, the landscape maintenance personnel looked like they were planting rice

  • Be patient looking for the One Pillar Pagoda, and trust the locals when they point. Follow the tourists. The entrance is a bit of a long way from Ba Dinh Square.

The one pillar pagoda


Some electric post

  • There is a quiet beauty to the One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột). It’s at once novel and ancient, a classic Chinese pagoda, only standing on a single stone pillar, jutting out from a pond like a lotus emerging from the water (apparently that’s the design’s intention). It is connected to the banks of the pond by a staircase, which should ruin the serenity of the  lone lotus in the water, but instead ends up having its own scenic charm.

It’s one of those rare steps that make you feel important as you climb it

  • The current pagoda is very recent, rebuilt after the French destroyed it during the Indochina War. It demonstrates best how, in the absence of tangible ancientness, heritage is all a matter of continuity in spatial and cultural position.


  • Seriously, mung bean as a flavour for ice cream is very underrated. You can never get wrong with mung bean ice cream.


  • The Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long is an interesting historical site, with both Imperial, colonial, and revolutionary significance. As such it is an interesting mix of classical Chinese, French neoclassical, and 20th century military architecture.
  • And few tourists visit! Hanoi’s most important historical attraction is still underrated.


  • Part of the Citadel’s charm is how they openly showcase the archeology going on.
  • The ceramic works they’ve unearthed in the site are impressively intricate. When I saw them I first thought they were made of wood.

Could you imagine the attention to details it takes to mold something like this from clay?


I want to be the kid who digs this up!

  • The building that now occupies the location of the destroyed Kính Thiên palace, the rather vainly named Dragon House, looks okay, but it’s depressing to know it wasn’t even a fraction of the original grandeur the site once had. The Vietnamese probably considered rebuilding the palace when they gained independence.

The incense burner was more picturesque


The altar inside the Dragon House. This really demonstrates Vietnamese anti-colonialism: make a temple of your folk religion out of a colonial building.

  • I can still imagine future restorations for the citadel: the northern area is still closed to the public, and the Eastern Clock Tower gate is poised for a refurbishing.

The eastern gate, with the clock a gaping hole


  • I noticed it first in Văn Miếu, but the Vietnamese knew how to make their stair partitions (I cannot find the right architectural term for it). In the Citadel, the stairs leading up the sacred dais of the palace site is made of dragons and, more beautifully. clouds.
  • If you’re adventurous enough, go down that inconspicuous flight of stairs behind the Dragon House and you’ll see the bunker used to hide generals from wartime shelling. it has an exit that leads out to the House D67

This entrance


Go down here


yes, through that rusty bomb-proof door


And you’ll see a cozy underground office

  • Do not let the unassuming name fool you, House D67 is a ridiculously important building: this is where the Vietnamese generals planned the Tet Offensive and the fall of Saigon – and ultimately the first time an alliance of western powers – led no less than the USA – was defeated by a still embryonic independent country.

The table where they orchestrated it all, headed by Lê Duẩn, General secretary of the Communist party and Ho Chi Minh’s successor. Could they have planned Donald Trump too?

  •  For VND 50,000 (110 pesos), you get to wear historical costumes, from ladies-in-waiting to soldiers.


  • Of course, I had to wear the heavily Chinese-inspired Emperor’s clothes: the mian guan crown with a curtain of beads to reflect the galaxy the Emperor rules over, lush imperial yellow, and a belt and boots ornately brocaded with the five-toed dragon.
  • And I look ridiculously good in Imperial clothes. The other tourists were having their pictures taken with me.

Lord of Ten Thousand Years!

  • Standing from the Duan Mon gate you get a great view of the Hanoi Tower.


  • Unfortunately by the time we finished exploring the Citadel the Hanoi Tower was closed. But because this was one of the symbols of Hanoi, we still got great pictures.

The Hanoi tower


Some chimney

  • There are squirrels in the Citadel! Watch your head, they drop the talisay seeds after they chew on them.
  • No, stupid millennial. Vladimir Lennin, who has a park in front of the Hanoi Tower, is not related to John Lennon.

The Vietnamese must really be big Beatles’ fans

  • Almost everything I discovered in Hanoi, I discovered by accident: Bún chả, Bánh cốm, the pens and notebooks, the sites in the Citadel. If I had not made a turn at a particular juncture  I’d have never be able to see a site or buy a souvenir. And sure enough we missed out on many things in this wonderful Southeast Asian capital. At every turn we make we open up new worlds, but close our doors to others. Do we regret the possibilities we never encountered? Life is far too full of things to actually experience, we have no time to regret what we missed out on.
  • Thank goodness I suggested Hanoi when we were deciding where to go.

Just go where the lotus lights lead you

(For more pictures, see my album on Facebook)

Kidapawan’s Founding Families

Kidapawan has old families which have seen it grow, from the remote sacred highlands of the Manobo to the capital and only city of North Cotabato. And as a city with a history both as a precolonial lumad realm and as a migrant settlement, these families are ethnically diverse, making Kidapawan a microcosm of multi-ethnic Philippines.

Below is a long list, in no way of exhaustive, of some of Kidapawan’s founding families. The list is largely based on Ferdinand Bergonia’s 2004 book, but I have added some families based on my observations (namely those I personally know have been in Kidapawan for much of its history). I know many other families which may qualify into this list but which I cannot yet verify. This post is developing as I continue to gather more information.

These families are either Manobo families that have been in the area since time immemorial, early settlers form Luzon and Visayas, or Moro families from the nearby Bangsamoro area that have long associated with the city. Many of them, unfortunately, no longer have descendants in Kidapawan.

The details provided are nowhere near comprehensive, and as such any additions are welcome:

  • Achas (early inhabitants of Kalaisan, descendants of Faustino Achas, founder of the baranggay)
  • Adang (early inhabitants in Balabag)
  • Amador (produced several generations of councillors starting from the 1950s)
  • Amas (Manobo natives of Lower Indangan and Amas, descendants of Pandayan Amas, tribal leader of Lower Indangan, and Datu Amas)
  • Ambi (Manobo natives of Lower Indangan, descendants of tribal leader Adas Ambi)
  • Añabeza (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Andico (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Angeles (Ilonggos, pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced Alfonso Angeles Sr., first elected mayor, and Alfonso Angeles Jr, vice mayor)
  • Anzare (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Arabelo (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Arsam (natives of Ginatilan, descendants of Datu Agad Arsam, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Asiñero (early inhabitants of Katipunan)
  • Austria (of Maranao stock, descendants of Vicente Austria, Sultan Omar Kiram of Uyaan, concentrated in Baranggay Lanao)
  • Bajet (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Baldove (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Balindog (natives of Balindog, descendants of a Datu of the same name)
  • Baltar (early inhabitants in Ilomavis)
  • Bancas (early inhabitants in Balabag)
  • Banga (from Bohol, founding settlers of New Bohol, descendants of Alfredo Banga, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Barreto (from Bohol, founding settlers of Sumbac)
  • Barruela (early inhabitants of Katipunan, descendants of Pedro Barruela, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Bartolaba (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Bautista (produced at least two councillors across different generations)
  • Belarmino (pioneer settlers in Baranggay Lanao)
  • Bernabe (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Bolasa (founding family of Linangkob and early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Bongcales (early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Borja (early inhabitants of Kalasuyan, descendants of Aproniano Borja, who negotiated the founding of the Baranggay and eventual councillor)
  • Braga (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Bulatukan (natives of Ginatilan, descendants of a datu of the same name)
  • Bunayog (early inhabitants of San Roque, descendants of Telesforo Bunayog, first Tenyente del barrio)
  • Buned (Manobo natives of Upper Indangan, descendants of Simbanan Buned, first Tenyente del Barrio), descendants of Simbanan Buned, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Burcao (from Mountain Province, early inhabitants of Singao, produced Martin Burcao, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Cabales (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced Esteban Cabales, second elected vice mayor)
  • Cagape (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Calayco (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Calmo (early inhabitants of of Meohao, descendants of Sandalio Calmo, first Christian Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Calubiran (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Canlas (from Pampangga, founding family of Perez, descendants of Bernardino Canlas, who founded the settlement)
  • Carbonell (early inhabitants of Magsaysay, descendants of Dominador Carbonell, founder of the first elementary school in the area)
  • Castillo (a Romualdo Castillo Sr. served as first Tenyente del Barrio of Balabag)
  • Chavez (early inhabitants of San Isidro, descendants of Patrocenio Chavez, first Tenyente del barrio)
  • Cipriano (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Clodin (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Cupot (form Leyte, early inhabitants of San Roque, descendants of Pedro Engog, first elected Tenyente del barrio)
  • Cuyno (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Dano (from Bohol, founding settlers of Sumbac)
  • David (Ilocanos, early Christian settlers in Nuangan and Poblacion, descendants of Crisostomo David, first Christian Tenyente del Barrio of Nuangan)
  •  Dayao (Tagalogs, early settler family in Poblacion, descendants of Eliseo Dayao Sr, who owned much of downtown Kidapawan and the most prominent casualty of the War)
  • Dimaano (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Dorado (early inhabitants of Onica, descendants of Restituto Dorado, first Tenyente del barrio)
  • Ebboy (natives of Meohao, descendants of Amado Ebboy, founder of the baranggay)
  • Embac (natives of Baranggay Marbel, descendants of Datu Embac, appointed mayor of Kidapawan during the post-War period)
  • Enghog (early inhabitants of San Roque, descendants of (?) Engog, second elected Tenyente del barrio)
  • Espejo (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced Januario Espejo Sr., guerrilla during the War)
  • Espero (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Espina (early inhabitants of Sto Niño, descendants of Sinforiano Espina, first Tenyente del barrio)
  • Evangelista (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, note that there seem to be two Evangelista families in town. One, the Ilocanos which settled in the 60’s to 70’s produced Joseph Evangelista, mayor of Kidapawan)
  • Familgan (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Flores (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Gadi (from Luzon, early settlers in Kidapawan, only family to date to have produced two mayors, Gil and Emma Gadi)
  • Galacio (natives of Meohao, descendants of Patricio Galacio, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Galang (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Galay (from Misamis Oriental and Bulacan, pioneer settlers in Baranggay Lanao)
  • Galonzo (early inhabitants of Ginatilan, descendants of Pedro Alonzo and his wife, first teachers in the area)
  • Gayotin (from West Visayasm early Christian settlers in Amas and Gayola, after whom the ‘Gayo’ in the latter’s name is taken, produced Jesus Gayotin, guerrilla during the War and politician)
  • Guadalupe (early Christian settlers in Amas)
  • Guboc (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Guibiernas (descendants of Maximino Guibiernas, founder of Amazion)
  • Guillano (early inhabitants of San Isidro, descendants of Martin Buillano, first elected Tenyente del barrio)
  • Hizon (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Icdang (Manobo natives and tribal leaders in Nuangan, owned much of what is today Poblacion, produced Katigan Icdang, first Tenyente del Barrio of Nuangan)
  • Imbod (Manobo natives, produced Juanita Imbod, who married Augustin Sanga, founder of Perez)
  • Ingkal (Maranao settlers based in Manongol, descendants of Datu Ugos Ingkal, produced Siawan Ingkal, first appointed mayor of Kidapawan)
  • Jalipa (early inhabitants of Kalasuyan, produced Wilfredo Jalipa, who negotiated the founding of the Baranggay and eventual Vice Mayor, and councillor Felix Jalipa)
  • Javier (family name of two families in Kidapawan: a Tagalog family living on the street near the Notre Dame of Kidapawan and after whom the street is named, and an Ilonggo one based in Sudapin, producing a Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Kintanar (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced sveral generations of councillors)
  • Labastida (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced early councillor Fabian Labastida)
  • Lagutin (from West Visayas, early Christian settlers in Gayola, after whom the ‘La’ in the baranggay’s name is taken)
  • Lamilongan (Manobo natives, produced Macanay Lamilongan, who married Bernardino Canlas, founder of Perez)
  • Landas (Manobo natives of Lower Indangan, descendants of tribal leader Atig Landas)
  • Landichos (pioneer settlers of the Nuangan-Poblacion area)
  • Linog (natives and tribal leaders of Amas, produced councillor Guabong Linog, early Municipal councillor)
  • Lonzaga (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Lucero (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Lumayon (Manobo natives and tribal leaders of Mua-an, descendants of datu of the same name, owner of the baranggay’s namesake dog and first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Luna (founding family of Linangkob)
  • Maangue (natives of Berada, Datu Mamay Maangue served as first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Madayag (early Christian settlers in Amas and Binoligan)
  • Madrid (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced Lino Madrid, early municipal councilor)
  • Makalunang (Manobo natives of Upper Indangan, descendants of tribal leader of the same name)
  • Malbas (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Manay (natives and tribal leaders of Sibawan, produced Datu Basiao and Arturo Manay, founding leaders of the baranggay)
  • Masbad (early settlers in Baranggay Lanao)
  • Maway (Manobo natives of Lower Indangan, descendants of tribal leader Sinwan Maway)
  • Melodias (early inhabitants of Manongol, produced Celso Melodias, Tenyente del Barrio and councillor)
  • Obregon (early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Ocampo (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Ogot (Manobo natives of Upper Indangan, descendants of tribal leader of the same name)
  • Onggok (Manobo natives of Upper Indangan, descendants of tribal leader of the same name)
  • Pamerio (early inhabitants of Singao)
  • Panday (natives of Ginatilan, descendants of Datu Lizada Panday)
  • Pandio (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Panes (Zambaleños, early inhabitants of Upper Indangan, descendants of Serafin, second Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Pansacala (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Pantaleon (early inhabitants of Paco, descendants of Toribio Pantaleon, first Tenyente del barrio)
  • Pascua (early inhabitants in Ilomavis, descendants of Priscilo Pascua, first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Pascual (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Patadon (founding Moro family of Patadon, descendants of Patadon Tungao, guerrilla during the War and first Tenyente del Barrio)
  • Pinantao (natives of Manonggol and Sudapin, from which the ‘pin’ is derived, produced Amado Pinantao, guerrilla during the War and first Tenyente del Barrio of Sudapin)
  • Prudente (early inhabitants of Onica, descendants of Sabrino Prudente, second Tenyente del barrio)
  • Rabago (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Ramos (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Rellin (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Remorosa (early inhabitants of Singao)
  • Respicio (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan and Makilala, produced Florante Respicio, acting Mayor during the EDSA uprising)
  • Sabulao (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, founded Central Mindanao Colleges, produced Cesar Sabulao, councillor and acting mayor)
  • Sagusay (from Bohol, founding settlers of Sumbac)
  • Salimorin (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Sampayan (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Sanga (from Pampangga, founding family of Perez, descendants of Augustin Sanga, nephew of Bernardino Canlas, who founded the settlement)
  • Saniel (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan, produced Lorenzo Saniel, elected mayor)
  • Sarino (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Sarong (early inhabitants of Kalaisan, descendants of Pedro Sarong, founder of the baranggay)
  • Sayago (early inhabitants of Magsaysay)
  • Segovia (early inhabitants of Paco, descendants of Celestino Segovia, first elected Tenyente del barrio)
  • Semilla (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Serrano (natives of Ilomavis, descendants of Datu Umag Serrano)
  • Sibug (Manobo natives of Manongol, produced two vice mayors of Kidapawan and three Councilors)
  • Sikitan (natives of Sikitan, descendants of Datu of the same name)
  • Sinbok (Manobo natives of Lower Indangan, descendants of tribal leader Layunan Sinbok)
  • Sugala (from Bohol, founding settlers of Sumbac)
  • Sumin (natives of Junction, descendants of datu of the same name)
  • Sungcag (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Tacardon (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Tamayo (early Christian settlers in Nuangan and Poblacion, descendants of Andres L. Tamayo, third Tenyente del Barrio of Nuangan and later Municipal councilor)
  • Teposo (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Timtim (early inhabitants of Singao)
  • Tolentino (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)
  • Tuburan (early inhabitants of Kidapawan, produced Jose Tuburan Jr., guerilla during the War)
  • Valladares (from East Visayas, early Christian settlers in Binoligan)
  • Villanueva (early settlers in Kidapawan, produced Ceferino Villanueva, appointed mayor during the post-War years)
  • Zarza (pioneer settlers of Kidapawan)

‘Lanit’: A Translation of the Vietnamese Folk Tale ‘Rat Poison’ to Davao Filipino

(I encountered the humorous Vietnamese folk tale entitled ‘Rat Poison’ in Vietnamese Folk Tales: Satire and Humour, edited by Hữu Ngọc and published in 2012 by Thế Giới Publishers, and it intrigued me. It had almost the exact same premise as another classic work of folk literature, the kyogen play Busu. I intend to translate Busu to DF in the future too!)


May isang barat na amo na kahilig sa masarap, pero grabe makadaginot pagdating na gani sa ipakain sa mga tauhan niya. Para makalikay lalo sa pangupit o pagyawyaw, yang pinagabugo lang talaga na amaw ang gina-kontrata niya.

Isang araw, bago siya maglaag, gisabihan niya ang kanyang tauhan, isang binatilyo galing bukid na bago niya lang gikontrata:

  • Dong, bantayan mo itong hamon at yang lechong manok ha. At sus, ‘wag mo talaga galawin yang dalawang bote diyan. Lanit (Lannate) yan, makahilo yan masyado.

Pag-alis ng amo, gikuha ng alalay ang pagkain galing sa mesa at gilamon, gipangtulak pa ang bino na nasa dalawang bote.

Pagbalik ng amo nakahapla lang intawon sa tulog ang amaw, parang tunog ng kasing kalakas ang paghagok.

  • Oy ‘dong, buanga ka, gising – sigaw ng amo – anong nangyari sa ulam ko, ha?
  • Ay hala boss sorry talaga masyado – sagot ng binatilyo, nagakusot pa ng mata at nagahikab – gibantayan ko talaga yun, pero ka-maro man talaga nung aso uy. Naglimod lang gud ako ikaisa, pagtingin ko natangay na.
  • Sus, sa hiya ko boss, maghikog na lang sana ako, kaya giinom ko yung iyong lanit!

On Leila De Lima’s adultery

Former Philippine Commission on Human Rights Chairperson and Justice Secretary and incumbent Senator Leila de Lima has just admitted that she once had an affair with her former driver, Ronnie Dayan, who was already married at the time. De Lima admitted the affair lasted for years.

She was mistress to a married man, and that means she has violated many Philippine laws. She has admitted to playing party to violation of Article 334 of the Revised Penal Code, punishable by up to 6 years of imprisonment. She may also be guilty of inflicting emotional and mental harm on Dayan’s wife under the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act (RA 9262). If sworn affidavits presented before congress are true that she spent money on Dayan, she can be also guilty of prostitution under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003 (RA 9208) (this entertainingly written article breaks down legal options against extramarital affairs).

We must remember that this is a public official who was tasked with handling human rights and justice, and is now elected to make laws.

All of these cases could only be filed against De Lima by her wife, but the wife has done nothing so far. This is a politician who is accused of having ties with drug lords and who has the backing of the Liberal Party, one of the country’s biggest political machines. Where do you think a driver’s housewife will get the courage and money to sue a mistress like that, and who also happens to be her husband’s boss?

In any case there is sufficient cause for her disbarment as a lawyer and her suspension from the Senate under ethical grounds. If she were an employee in a company, she’d be fired by now.

De Lima has since requested the public to respect her private life. But I do not think there is anything in her private life worth respecting.

The honourable senator is a public figure, and in her prominent position she is sending the message that adultery is acceptable and forgivable, that it is okay to destroy marriages and families just because she is a woman and she thinks she needs to fill her orifices with a married man’s erection.

She is sending the message that it is okay to ruin the lives of children, to make them learn to doubt the reality of love and loyalty, to lose trust in a parent’s word of honour and respect for them as a whole, or even to grow up without one parent because either the cheating parent left for the lover or the offended parent left, leaving the children behind.

I know what a betrayed wife looks like in her devastation, doubting her own worth as a human being after having been discarded, grieving over the wasted years of marriage, blaming herself for failing as a wife, agonizing over her own powerlessness. It is not a look I want any child to see in their mother.

The Pasmodern Manifesto

The Pasmodern Manifesto

By Frank Edwin Macapanas

  • The very nature of modern Filipino identity is of hunger – for belongingness, for recognition, for resolution. And yet the Filipino is unaware of this, for he is sustained with the bahaw (stale) – pan-os (spoiled), even – ideology of the past. He is essentially hungry and malnourished, he is pasmo. This is called the Pasmodern Condition.


  • What are the stalenesses and spoilednesses that the Filipino partakes of? These are foreign essences he imbibes to define himself: Spanish holy water, the American spirit, and today for those in the regions the water of the river Pasig. And yet this does not help him define himself, it only ascribes unto him the identity of the cultures from whence these objects are pirated. We are all just indios, just little brown Americans, just variations of Manileno, or a combination of all these with K-pop bangs. The Filipino identity is a Budots identity, a repetitive and heterogeneous pastiche of influences, but forever devoid of coherent substance.


  • The condition of being unaware of one’s hunger for identity is called Dinanghag. The Filipino must liberate himself from this ignorance, from the blindness at his own malnourishment, and realize that he is hungry. Only then can he move forward as a human being.


  • The duty of the artist is to dispel Dinanghag by exemplifying hunger. He must embrace his own emptiness and let it define his art.


  • Prolonged hunger begets delusion, and the acceptance of the Budots identity without knowledge of it is itself a delusion. And yet this is a world of lies, we are all caught in Indra’s net, all beneficiaries of Nietzscheian balikbayan boxes. Nothing, therefore, is truer than the delusions of the Pasmodern.


  • True cultural incorporation is the making of borrowed elements our own. We however make ourselves what we borrow, we adjust to what we take, compromising our identity creation in the process. The artist must redeem the Filipino identity of such compromises, purge it of its anomalous voids. Before the Filipino can recognize he is malnourished of actual identity, he must wretch out all the otherness he has swallowed. He must kill the Spanish Jesus, he must kill Uncle Sam, he must kill Rizal. The beginning of Pasmodern awakening is purgation.


  • And yet truths that establish themselves are difficult to remove, like addictions to the immediate and familiar pleasure of junk foods. Dinanghag is most problematic when it is permeated by a sense of attachment, of seriousness. But the solution to this is whimsicality in derision. To move the Filipino with art, the artist must yaga-yaga, but he must not only yaga-yaga, he must yaga-yaga with the intention of hurting in order to scrape off barnacled old ‘truths’: the artist must bugal-bugal. The artist must initiate Bugal-Bugal Revolution, for the individual Filipino and for the Filipino people synchronically. This will lead to identity purgation.


  • The initial result of successful Bugal-Bugal Revolution is Kahasol – an immediate feeling of somewhat bereft consternation, as if sense had been ‘hustled’ away from one. This then leads to alienation, the Filipino finally seeing he is not an indio, not a brown American, not simply a variant of Manileno. And he will realize he cannot continue thinking he is any of these. Everything he has come to know as familiar will be unpleasant and different. And there will be nothing, other than these now strange lies, but emptiness. He will be incapable of determining then who he is. This is his recognition of his own hunger for familiarity, and the discomfort he will feel is Kalain (difference/unpleasantness).


  • And yet he will continue to see delusions, for hunger always begets delusions. But this time he knows he is seeing delusions, and these delusions will consciously emerge as an attempt to fill in the void where truth is supposed to be. The Filipino must embrace the delusions of the Pasmodern as they are, and not as truths, for it is better to be deluded and know that one is deluded than to see the truth and not know that the truth is a delusion. There is no truth, so we must make it. This is Pinataka, the deliberate creation of truths in its inherent absence.


  • The role of the artist is to create. The artist must take Filipino identity in his own hands, grip it firmly, stroke it violently until it blisters, and let liquid possibilities spurt out of it. The artist must not be limited to who the Filipino is, or who he seems to be, but must be preoccupied with who the Filipino can and in his own opinion must be. The Pinataka artist consciously contributes to the endless discourse of identity creation.


  • Any artist who believes he is ‘depicting’ realities is being deluded without knowing it. The nostalgics who hark back to long gone precolonial times, the colonialists who deify the Spanish or the Americans or the Koreans, the activists decrying anything not dealing with farmers or the urban poor or the environment or gender as ‘socially irrelevant,’ the removed poets aspiring for ‘moral universals:’ all of them are deluded without knowing it. The only serious artist is the Pinataka artist.


  • The Pinataka artist is also superior to De Man’s ‘deliberate misreaders,’ for more often than not the deliberate misreader is not really misreading deliberately but accidentally, inadvertently forging new meaning out of the old. The Pinataka artist is conscious even of his deliberate accidents.


  • There are two types of Pinataka artist: the ones who are completely devoid of any tradition, and the ones disowned by their tradition. Both types contribute to the creation of identity, but the latter is superior to the former, as the former, out of native genius, may simply produce unwittingly what has already been produced, while the latter are aware of what has been said in the discourse before and will deliberately be different.


  • The Pinataka artist is a prophet, and as such he cannot be encumbered by the mundane communicative difficulties of class in conveying his prophecy. And yet in his attempt at initiating Bugal-Bugal Revolution he can take advantage of class. He can Lim-buwag – shatter (in Tagalog ‘buwag’) the established Dinanghag by overturning (in Cebuano ‘limbuwag’) the accepted hierarchies in that class. Bakhtin calls it carnivalesque, but we will not borrow his term (we must rehabilitate ourselves for the time being of our addiction of borrowing!) as we already have our own. By presenting lower class culture to the upper classes and vice versa, they will see not that their class has defined who they are, but that they have allowed their class to define them – seeing what is not one’s own does not present universals, it alienates one from the familiar. This will lead to Kahasol, then ultimately Kalain.


  • The end of the Pasmodern endeavour does not exist, one Bugal Bugal Revolution must come after another endlessly. The Filipino identity will never be fixed. It is the duty and mission of the Pinataka artist to make Filipino identity one of permanent kalain, one of Ka-ugaling-on, ‘however-ness,’ the state of identity that will always have its insufficiencies and contradictions. Liberated from Dinanghag, the Filipino will never be complacent and will forever be a being ahead-of-himself, constantly taking his own identity as an issue.


  • It is not strange for the Pasmodern Filipino, enlightened by Pinataka art, to embrace his Budots identity. Rather it is expected, as true and complete rejection of any sense of inherent essence will make incongruous hybridity as acceptable as, if not preferable over, any delusions of purism. Filipino identity may easily become its own question. It is the duty of the artist to constantly ask that question.

Myanmar’s Noodles

I will live a long life because of Myanmar.

I’m lucky to be in Shan State, where Myanmar sees the greatest diversity of noodles. Most noodles are served either a-yeh (with soup) or a-thoke (literally ‘salad,’ in dry form). The diversity comes in the kind of noodle (there is no specific word for noodles in general in Burmese, though ‘kauk swe‘ comes near), and how it is prepared.

Here are some of the many varieties of Myanmar’s noodles I’ve had.


I’ve written enough about Tofu nwey (ထိုဖူးနွေ) already! This piece of culinary genius is unique to Shan state, and is served with Shan kauk swe


Tofu nwey is actually very versatile. Here it’s served on ye sein thoke


And here it is served with ye sein a-yeh


Shan kauk swe (ရှမ်းခေါက်ဆွဲ): in Taunggyi the term is most often used for these sticky rice noodles with a rubber-band like springiness.


Ye sein (ရေစိမ်): thin sticky rice noodles, here served a-thoke.


I’ve written enough about Ohn no kauk swe (အုန်းနို့ခေါက်ဆွဲ) too!


Nosein kauk swe (နို့စိမ်ခေါက်ဆွဲ), like ohn no kauk swe but with cow milk instead of coconut milk


Shwe taung kauk swe (ရွှေတောင်ခေါက်ဆွဲ) : wheat noodles in rich coconut broth with chicken and some lime juice


Malar hin (မာလာဟင္, flat glass noodles stirfried with lots of vegetables in a very spicy peanut sauce) and Me-Oh meeshay (clear rice noodles stir fried in a slightly similar way)


Mohinga (မုန့်ဟင်းခါး): Myanmar’s touted national dish actually tastes like Filipino Palabok


Meeshay (မြီးရှေ‌): thick and slippery rice noodles


Si kyat (ဆီချ): Chinese stir fried wheat noodles, a peculiarity among Burmese Chinese


Nan gyi thoke (နနး ၾကီးသုပ္): one way of preparing noodles, this meaty and spicy ‘noodle salad’ is often nicknamed ‘Burmese spaghetti’